Paris: Urban Sanitation Before the 20th Century
Built on the ruins of the Roman city of Lutecia, Paris was officially founded
in ca 360. Its evolution was defined by a succession of fortified walls
that surrounded its ever expanding territory up to the 19th Century.
Since ancient times, the basic rule for dealing with Parisian garbage was
"tout-a-la-rue", all in the street, including household waste,
urine, feces and even fetuses. Larger items were frequently thrown into
the "no-man's-land" over the city wall or into the Seine. Feces,
however, was often collected to be used as fertilizer. Parisian dirt streets
easily assimilated the refuse thanks to frequent rain and heavy pedestrian
and cart traffic. The edible muck was often consumed by pigs and wild dogs,
and the rest was consumed by microorganisms.1 The smell of the rotting matter
was terrible but by no means the only contribution to the odors found in
The history of waste treatment in Paris was not unlike those of other major
industrialized cities. Response to the accumulation of refuse generally
occurs when problems become too urgent to ignore. Paris's enormous production
of urban refuse - household and manufacturing garbage, human and animal
excrements, human corpses and animal carcasses _ produced gradual solutions
in the form of cesspools, gutters, waterworks, sewers, street cleaning ordinances,
fountains, garbage collection, dumps, bathhouses, bathrooms, street urinals,
sewerage farming, composting, mass graves, cemeteries and catacombs, intertwined
and influenced by the political and philosophical ideas of the times. This
site will tackle four waste management topics _ sanitation, sewerage, garbage
and corpses_ in chronological order starting with the medieval times and
ending with the end of the 19th century, when most of the current waste
management methods were implemented.
Images in this site are by Felix Nadar (1820-1910) and Eugene Atget (1856-1927),
French photographers documenting mundane and extraordinary sites in Paris
in the late 19th and early 20th Century.
The Medieval Period
12th century Paris, still confined to the Isle de la Cite, used the Seine
to clean the city. The Seine was also strategically used by industries who
placed themselves along its banks to benefit from the particular chemicals
dumped by their upstream neighbors. The quantities of dumped chemicals was
not in amounts large enough to kill the fish, but it helped purify the water
from the other garbage. Tanners and dyers were often on opposite sides of
the island; skinners, furriers and glovemakers locate themselves downstream
from the dyers to benefit from the dumped alum. Urine and feces were used
industrially in paper-making, dying and making saltpeter, as a replacement
for the scarcer alum, in processes requiring humidity and fermentation.
What Andre Guillerme refers to as the "fungal economy" lasts until
the 18th century. The richness of the city could be measured by its stench.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, public baths were plentiful in Paris; however,
the presence of men and women together without bathing suits brought strong
disapproval from the Church. 3 Public bathhouses became very rare and did
not reappear until the 19th century. The negative attitude towards the body
- the embodiment of sin - was believed to benefit the soul. 4 Constant water
shortages did not help matters much. Paris chronic lack of potable water
caused outbreaks of water-borne diseases well into the 18th Century, since
water was available from only a few fountains and wells. The addition of
new water supplies could barely keep up with demand.
Paris in the 13th century transformed itself from feudal estates to those
the church and state, with the land and power divided equally. Phillipe
Augustus begins public works such as the Cimtiere des Saints Innocents and
the masonry fortification around Paris to relieve congestion. 5 He also
ordered the paving of the roads in order to cut down on the offensive stench
of the impregnated mud. This cuts down on the mud, which still remains considerable,
but also creates the need to get rid of garbage and sewage, which could
no longer be assimilated back into the ground. 6
The wealthy dead were buried in cemeteries in and around churches, so they
would have better luck in the afterlife. The rest, a wide social group,
were relegated to mass graves. The largest was the Cimtiere des Saints Innocents,
which later was emptied due to the stench of the rotting corpses. Strangely
enough, Saints Innocents was a popular spot for lovers, merchants and preachers.
Phillipe Auguste (1180-1223) established the royal gallows of Montfaucon
north of Paris, serving not only as the gallows but also the town dump.
Thousands of people were hung there; those that died while being tortured
were left hanging to rot until their bones fell. Their remains would then
be dumped into a pit along with the household waste, excrements and rubble.
Like the Christian denial of burial to criminals, the smell that emanated
down to Paris served as a subtle deterrent to crime. This practice also
continued well into the 18th Century. Parent-Duchatelet, the early 19th
century hygienist, refers to Montfaucon as the "Epicenter of Stench."
The long periods of war from the 14th to the 17th century limited the physical
expansion of Paris to its fortifications. The influx of peasants seeking
better fortune formed a constant source of population increases since the
number of deaths in Paris almost always outpaced the number of births. 9
The accumulation of refuse in the streets reached the point that in 1348
Phillipe VI de Valois passed an ordinance requiring the citizens to sweep
in front of their doors and to transport their garbage to dumps or risk
fines and imprisonment. He established the first corp of sanitation workers
to clean the streets. Even with ordinances issued every few years, these
brought little relief and were difficult to enforce. Garbage piled up in
the streets, making some completely inaccessible. Finally in desperation,
the King made Nobility set an example, and people began to follow the orders,
(but now they dumped their waste on public property and out of the way places.)
10 In the 15th century, Charles IV created official dumps outside the city
walls, with names like Trou Gaillard and Trou Bernard, but the situation
inside the walls still did not improve much. 11 In the late 16th century,
these dumps became so tall and large that they were fortified, fearing that
enemies would use them to point their canons down on the city. 12
In 1370, Hughes Aubriot creates the first covered sewer in Montmartre, called
the Fosse de St. Opportune. It dumped right into the Seine _ by the Louvre
_ offending Louis XII. Francois I moved his mother to the Tuillerie to escape
the smell. Besides that, the crown did little to improve the sewers, showing
complete indifference unless they were personally affected by the stench.
The other sewers were simply gullies that ran down the middle of the street
with no particular destination. They smelled odious, overflowed at depressions
and turned to muck when it rained. Some desperate souls made a living by
charging fees to cross these gullies on boards. 13
In 1404, the dumping of garbage in the Seine reached the point that the
authorities threatens to charge the riverains--people making a living by
the river--for cleaning it up. Tanners and butchers were forced to move
downstream as the dumping of carcasses, blood and by-products could no longer
be supported. 14
Paris From 1500 to the Revolution of 1789
In the 16th century, the plagues, brought by rats, were ravaging most European
cities and brought new sanitation ordinances. In 1539, Francois I orders
property owners to build cesspools, for the collection of human sewage,
into each new dwelling. Those who would not comply have their houses confiscated,
and rents were collected to pay for the cesspools. Most of these cesspools
were built to leak so as to be emptied less frequently--water tightness
was not mandated until the 19th century. These were emptied by cesspool
cleaners who transported the human sewage in barrels to dumps outside the
city. Cesspools remained the most common method of dealing with human sewage
until the late 19th century and cut down on the human sewage found on the
street. However, animal excrement, especially from horses, was still present
in enormous quantities, though the mixture of mud and dung was carted off
by the street cleaners and used as fertilizer. 15 In 1674, a decree states
that feces must be separated from other wastes at the dump, in order to
begin manufacturing poudrette or human guano--a greasy, powdery, flammable
substance made by open-air fermentation of human sewage. Valued as a fertilizer,
it was toxic to breathe and incredibly foul smelling for miles around. 16
In 1636, a study finds that all 24 sewers were clogged and in serious disrepair.
Louis XIII found little interest in this and even pocketed the wine tax
set aside for the upkeep of sewers. Sewer maintenance was never clearly
defined and relegated; instead, contractors were hired by the city to clean
and maintain only the open sewers. By 1663, one fourth of the ten kilometers
of sewers were covered. These poorly designed sewers--with poorly kept records
of their locations--hid their contents, were difficult to clean and clogged
easily, since water flowed only when it rained. Sewer construction up to
the 1820s consisted of hewn stones and rectangular bases, causing silt to
build up quickly. 17 Perhaps Paris was not ready for the responsibility
of maintaining covered sewers and many felt that no sewers were less dangerous
to the public health than badly maintained ones. There was much criticism
of Parisian egotism in comparison to the "civic patriotism" of
the Ancient Romans, who maintained their sewers and aqueducts. 18
An ordinance of 1721 stated that property owners must pay for the cleaning
of the covered sewers that pass under their building. The property owners
concluded from this that they had the right to dump all their refuse in
the sewer, aggravating the problem and causing many to become blocked. Another
ordinance was passed in 1736 stating those found dumping in covered sewers
would be heavily fined, and corporal punishment would be administered to
the servants. A similar ordinance was once again passed 1755 to no avail,
and illegal dumping continued. 19
The lack of adequate maintenance also causes the failure of the 1737 sewer
design of Turgot, father of the minister. He constructed a large reservoir
to provide sewers with a constant water supply, installed sluice gates to
cause periodic flushing of the sewers and designed high walls with footbridges.
The land above the sewers was set aside for gardening and building. Louis
XV attended the opening in 1740, in a rare show of interest. Once again
the illegal hookups cause the sewer to clog, and putrid smell soon emanated.
The sewer was abandoned in 1779, soon after the death of Turgot. 20
With sieges no longer a threat, an intolerance of the smells emanating from
local dumps developed in the Nobility. In 1758, a decree stated that the
future dumps must be outside of Paris. In 1761, Montfaucon moves further
out from the encroaching city and becomes the primary dump for Paris. It
becomes the only dump after 1781. The large-scale production of poudrette
and vast slaughterhouses were also located here. The carcasses found a convenient
home. 21 The estimated 270,000 cubic meters of mud removed each year from
the Parisian streets were destined for Montfaucon and imply a certain and
lingering social disregard for Enlightenment in regards to hygiene. 22 In
fact, an ordinance of 1780 once again forbade people from throwing water,
urine, feces or household garbage out the window. 23
Squatters moved into the old dumpsites outside of the fortification, resulting
from the new social contract. They were often forced to move to the urban
area after being displaced from the countryside. Residents of these bidonvilles,
or shanty towns, were called zoniers, and frequently make a living from
scavenging rags and metal objects. Many of these bidonvilles were not torn
down until the 1940s. 24
A fear of disease-causing "miasmas" from rotting corpses leads
to designating new cemeteries on the outskirts of Paris, in the fashion
of the Greeks and Romans. These include Pere Lachaise. The fear of the stench
from the mass grave of Saints Innocents lead to the removal of human remains
and was performed on winter nights over a two year period, from 1785-1787.
These bones were placed in the Catacombes--named after the Roman catacombs,
though these were simply abandoned quarries once populated by thieves--and
were sorted and stacked neatly by type, just like in the Imperial City.
The transfer of other urban cemeteries to the Catacombes occured until the
1870s; it currently hold the remains of six million Parisians. The Catacombs
became a popular novelty for the old nobility to hold dinner parties and
picnics there. 25
Although the execution of criminals no longer occured at Montfaucon in the
18th century, bodies still were dumped there along with the garbage, including
the bodies of the people beheaded during the French Revolution. 26 After
the revolution, the christian denial of burial to criminals ceased; however,
the ties of Montfaucon with unimaginable horrors remained. 27
Paris from the Revolution of 1789 to the Revolution of 1848
The ever-increasing size of the working class and "dangerous"
class-- ie. the displaced proletariat of Adam Smyth's novel capitalist theories
--were feared and mistrusted by the bourgeoisie throughout the 19th Century.
The popular revolutions of 1789, 1830 and 1848 illustrate the people's protest
and control over political and social orders. Paris had around half a million
residents at the turn of the 19th century. 28 By 1830, the population neared
a million; by 1890, the population neared two million. The industrial revolution
attracted workers to urban centers, creating large, overcrowded slums and
expensive residential areas. 29 The poor lived in furnished buildings, called
ameubles, which were frequently subdivided abandoned homes of the rich.
The rooms were continually divided; floors were sometimes added, creating
six-foot ceilings. Stairs were often nothing more than ladders. Water was
only available in the streets; few had cesspools. As O. Du Mensil wrote
in 1878, "... the humidity was constant, ventilation and lighting insufficient,
the dirtiness sordid;...the courts and air shaft were infected by the accumulation
of decaying garbage and the stagnation of rainwater and household waste,
which remains and putrefies there; the privies, when they exist were in
sufficient in number; their filthiness revolting." 30 Such housing
conditions encouraged the cholera and tuberculosis epidemics that spread
through out the slums in the 19th century.
From 1805-1817, the engineer Bruneseau explores the unmapped sewers of Paris
in the hopes of reforming them. The sewer's political connection was symbolic
of the "moral disintegration and political upheavals", as Victor
Hugo says; Hugo's fictional Bruneseau in Les Miserable portrays the engineer
as the explorer. Politically, the sewer was considered a dangerous place,
as it was an unsupervised place which harbored enemies of the state. 31
In the 1820s and 30s, public health experts like Parent-Duchatelet studied
Montfaucon, the sewers, and prostitution 32. Scientific exploration of these
subjects, it was hoped, would make people realize that refuse could be reasonably
By 1826, the Paris sewers were in terrible shape and were maintained a corp
of only twenty-four sewermen. They unclogged unmaintained sewers such as
Amelot, whose hardened sewage reaches the ceiling. Like coal miners, the
sewermen extract the sewage with spades, called rabots, being "careful
not to undercut the mass of solid rotting matter for fear of roof falls".
The sand was worse, as it could only be removed manually. This was only
done when organic matter was rotting in it and then, only at night. 31
The cholera epidemic of 1832 killed 20,000 Parisians. The transmission of
the water-borne disease was not known until the 1850; instead, it was believed
to be through the odorous "miasmas". Popular riots were initiated
against the rich, the doctors and the state. The ties of revolution and
disease became further entrenched; therefore, a well maintained sewer, it
was believed, would combat disease and revolution. Between 1832-34, 14 km
were laid. These sewers were built with cement mortar and millstone; they
had oval floors to make flushing out easier. This building method was cheaper,
easier and faster to construct than the previous method. By 1840, the sewer
system was already up to 96 km. 34
The hygienists notice that the deaths from cholera was highest in 20 percent
of the Paris's area that contained over 50 percent of the population, especially
on the Isle de la Cite and around the Hotel de Ville. Serving the Bourbon
Monarchy, the Count de Rambuteau, Prefect of the Seine from 1833-1848, layed
the groundwork for Haussmann. He made the outlying areas absorb the central
density and made the streets cleaner by constructing fountains, sewers,
urinals and hydrants. The monumental quality of these fountains was for
the public good; a generous token of urban goodwill considering a simple
faucet could have served just as well. These important structures were,
after all, supplying the most important substance for life: water. The urinals,
nicknamed after him, also attempted this civic ideal, considering its base
purpose, through ornamentation. 39 km of water mains and 217 hydrants--which
provide a constant stream of water to clean the gutters--existed in 1832;
by 1850, 358 km of watermains and 1837 hydrants exist. This lead to the
development of English-style raised sidewalks and roof gutter leading to
Buildings were hooked up to two watermains, potable and non potable. Reservoirs
were constructed to increase the water pressure to all floors of the building.
The kitchen and bathroom were generally separated from the rest of the apartment
due to the smells, but these room were introduced back into the apartment
with the successful intergration of water and drains. Solving the crude
aesthetics of these new utilities--when incorporated into an existing building--is
done by having the pipes introduced through the back of the building. Water
was first introduced into the kitchen, as the tiled environment was believed
to be able to withstand the humidity. The introduction of running water
into the bathroom happened later, during Haussmann's period, as many feel
that water and cold tiles were unhealthy. Early toilets were cast iron tanks
connected to cesspools; the traditional ceramic toilet with a water tank
appears at the end of the 18th century. The traditional bathroom, with hot
and cold running water, was a development of the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1844, a law stated that the police were now responsible for the public
health. A tax was established according to the length of the facade of the
building and was intended for street cleaning. 37 This made enforcing the
law much easier and much more effective.
In 1834, Leroux, a socialist, develops the "circulus", the theory
of replenishing the earth in a cycle, based on experiments with poudrette.
By getting rid of human sewage, people were breaking the cycle. Influenced
by Leroux, Karl Marx in Das Kapital states that the waste of soil nutrients
found in sewerage was characteristic of capitalism. 38
Paris from Haussmann to Poubelle
The 1848 revolution ended with Napoleon III in power, as the candidate backed
by the upper-middle class who now wielded significant power. 39 From 1853
to 1870, Haussmann, the Prefect of the Seine, transformed much of Paris
for the interests of the middle class; however, his ordinance of 1852--
mandatory cleaning of the facade of buildings--was viewed as socialist by
the landlords.40 His planning attempted to create sanitation though open
space41, at the cost of systematic demolition of much of the old city. He
and his engineer Belgrand financed these projects through deficit financing
in anticipation of Paris's growth. His projects could not have happened
otherwise, and Paris could no longer afford to ignore the problems of fresh
water and sewers anymore. He doubled the water supply through the construction
of the aqueducts of Yonne, Vanne and Dhuis. Their design was also heavily
influenced by the Romans.42 As a result, the cholera epidemics became less
frequent and less severe after the 1850s.43
In 1852, a reversal in policy stated that homes were to have direct sewer
hookup for wastewater, besides the cesspools. 44 Haussmann understood that
all homes must be hooked up for the sewers to be truly effective. Belgrand
designed the sewers to the natural incline of the river basin, south east
to north west, for gravity to do most of the work. The sewers sloped 3cm
to the meter so as not to be too slippery for the sewermen, and all sewer
arteries were tall enough to work standing up. The larger ones had paths
along side the cunette. 45 The sewers worked like a capillary network, running
to large collector sewers--five at the end of the century--which the carried
the waste north of the city. These sewers rarely flooded and carried street
and household water only. Haussmann did not want his work contaminated with
The maintenance of the sewers was performed by an expanded corp of sewermen,
and effective cleaning methods were developed. Instead of constant water
flow, period flushing of the sewers was accomplished several ways: sluice
gates, sluice carts and sluice boats --a metal plate was screwed down vertically
in the back, sewage backs up behind it, and strong currents flush the rest
in front of the boat. The boat moved along by the pressure of the sewerage
through the galleries and returned to its initial starting point by manually
pulling it back to this day since motors could cause an explosion. 47
Montfaucon was closed in 1850. It's potent symbolism of the immorality of
society was thought to incite barbaric and retaliatory behavior. It was
also feared as a source of contagious diseases. The reform of Montfaucon--as
social redemption--was directed by the architect Pierre Girraud. Montfaucon
was to become an industrial park, surrounded by a resplendant tree-filled
park for the workers to get some fresh air. The sewage dump moved to Bondy,
much farther north of the city. The complex sewage transport process required
cesspool cleaners to unload their barrels at La Villette, future site of
slaughterhouses. Then, solid waste was sent in hermetically sealed containers
by boat while liquids were sent by a pipeline to Bondy. This operation continued
until the 1870s, when lease negotiation faltered and Bondy reaches capacity.
Of the 100,000 cubic meters of solid waste, one/third decomposed, and one/third
simply washed into the Seine. Suburban dumpsites developed making lucrative
deals with the city. Twenty-four suburban dumpsites existed in 1880 -- many
producing ammonium sulfate, whose smell reaches all parts of Paris. The
smell was blamed on sewers, not the real culprits. 48
In the 1860s, horse drawn tipcarts began collecting garbage from sidewalks.
49 Until the 1870s, all the household garbage was dumped into the street
between eight and nine p.m. and picked up the following morning. A regulation
passed in 1870 stipulated that garbage be put out in the morning instead50,
much to the relief of anyone outdoor past eight.
In 1864, Haussmann and his team of engineers decided the best solution for
the overcrowded cemeteries was mechanical: to develop one large cemetery
for all of Paris at Mery-sur-Oise connected by a special railway. This funerary
line would connect to the three other principal, overcrowded cemeteries:
Napoleon I's Montmartre, Pere Lachaise and Montparnasse. As Saalman puts
it, "Insensitive to the negative psychological overtones of his 'iron
horse express to the grave' conception, Haussmann found himself unprepared
for the popular outcry his proposal raised, and nothing became of it."
The Paris sewers opened for public tours during the Exposition of 1867.
These popular tours took place in luxury sluice carts and boats with white-clad
sewermen pushing them along. People wore their fine clothes for the tour,
since the sewers were immaculate. The attraction of these modern, technological
structures--no longer a source of disgust and fear--represented the government
that made them happen as a beacon of order and reason. Sewer tours go on
to this day, but the humiliating practice of using sewermen as motors ended
in the 20th century. 52 Public tours of the Catacombes began in 1874. 53
Taken during the 1860s, Felix Nadar's artificially lit photos of sewers
and the catacombes illustrate the modern fascination with these new environments.
(Attraction to these photography subjects may seem strange to contemporary
viewers.) The technique was so experimental that shots could take twenty
minute, making mannequins necessary.
In 1867-68, Mille and Durand-Claye began testing sewage treatment by filtration
and irrigation at La Villette, with incredible results. Many people, including
Belgrand, favored chemical treatment of sewage. Filtration was important,
but Belgrand felt that irrigation was just too expensive to make "a
few thousand acres more fertile." Mille and Durand-Claye move their
operation to Gennevilliers after getting funding. The Franco-Prussian War
emphasized the need for a nearby food supply and the Seine needed cleansing.
Using sewerage, they made sandy infertile soil produce an amazing variety
of crops, even aromatic plants for perfumers. The sewage kept the earth
warmer in winter, extending the growing season, and did not freeze in cold
weather. This method became the principle method of sewage treatment up
to the 1920s. Toxic industrial waste and the bourgeoisie's refusal to allow
sewage farming in their suburban communities halted sewerage farming in
its tracks. 54
In the 1870s, the presence of cesspool cleaners on the street was no longer
tolerated. Engineers, including Mille and Durand-Claye, push for "tout-a-l'egout,"
ie. all in the sewer. This has already been implemented in Brussels, London
and Berlin. Haussmann knew this was inevitable but did not want his project
soiled with feces and urine. The arguments for and against were fought through
out the 1870s and 1880s; those against it were the cesspool cleaning companies
and a large part of the medical establishment. Louis Pasteur favors dumping
at sea because the treatment did not kill the organism well enough. Others
felt the sewer system was too large and slow to handle human sewage, which
would fester and infect the air with disease causing "miasmas".
(The odors from the dumps in the 1880s were blamed on the sewers.) 55
Eugene Poubelle became Prefect of the Seine in 1884 and created the final
laws governing the garbage collection and street cleaning, building on the
earlier regulations about sweeping in front of the building and not throwing
anything out the window. Poubelle took these rules much further. He defined
the garbage can as having a maximum of 120 liters and the time of passage
of the tipcarts (both summer and winter). Rules stipulated that lids must
be removed before placing the garbage can on the sidewalk, that dumping
rubble, industrial and garden waste was illegal, that glass required separate
containers, that ragpickers must sort the garbage on the canvas and not
on the ground, and that the cans must be cleaned regularly to avoid odors.
Poubelle organized garbage collection in this manner to allow for the household
waste to be composted at Saint Ouen. The advent of plastics in the 20th
century waste stream put a halt to this practice as well. Angry landlords
retaliated by giving his name to the garbage can. 56
These improvements in sanitation lead to a general improvement in the control
of epidemics. Typhoid and cholera killed fewer people, but tuberculosis
was on the rise (11,023 in 1880, 12,376 in 1894). TB was the only disease
directly linked to buildings. The overcrowded, unhygienic slums and the
lack of sunlight due to the narrow streets and tall buildings causes the
disease to spread as the population and overcrowding continued to increase.
57 In 1883, a regulation was passed for furnished buildings to have one
toilet for every twenty people. Water for individual unit was still a luxury.
Workers lived in filth, as bathhouses and laundry cleaning were too expensive.
Baths and showers for workers's accommodations were still considered controversial
at the turn of the 20th century. 58
In 1892, cholera's final major reappearnace raised public support for "tout-a
-l'egout." Poubelle passed an ordinance that landlords must provide
sewers to dispose of excrements and must pay for the service. In 1899, the
beltway sewer was closed, ending the dumping of untreated sewerage in the
The transition from "tout-a-la-rue" to "tout-a-l'egout"
occurs over a period of five hundred years. The benefits of fresh water,
sewers and garbage collection contribute to a general improvement in health
and life expectancy, as well as making the city cleaner and more enjoyable.
Romantic nostalgia for the past often ignores the incredible stench, but
breaking the "circulus" was the most regrettable loss that the
modern developments have lead to. By not utilizing the waste that society
produces as fertilizer, the soil gets depleted and must be fertilized by
other means. The unused refuse was essentially wasted, often in landfills.
Many large cities have serious problems in dealing with the increase in
population, garbage and sewage. Toxic industrial chemicals and plastics,
especially packaging, have increased the complexity of these problems, but
a serious reexamination in the way society deals, or rather ignores, its
refuse problems was warranted.
1 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 84.
2 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 10.
3 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 88.
4 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 84.
5 Saalman; Haussmann: Paris Transformed, p 32-33.
6 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 84.
7 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 16.
8 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 12.
9 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 10.
10 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 84.
11 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 85.
12 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 10.
13 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 12.
14 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 84.
Paris From 1500 to the Revolution of 1789
15 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 85 & Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen;
p 10, 88-89.
16 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 11.
17 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 25.
18 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 13.
20 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 14.
21 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 11, 72.
22 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 11.
23 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 85.
24 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 205-207.
25 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 16.
26 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 85.
27 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 12.
Paris from the Revolution of 1789 to the Revolution of 1848
28 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 18-19.
29 Choay; The Modern City: Planning in the 19th Century; p 8.
30 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 203-4.
31 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 20-27.
32 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 23.
33 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 23-25.
34 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 25.
35 Louer; Paris Nineteenth Century Architecture and Urbanism; p 106-12.
36 Louer; Paris Nineteenth Century Architecture and Urbanism; p 187-8.
37 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 85-7.
38 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 54-57.
Paris From Haussmann to Poubelle
39 Saalman; Haussmann: Paris Transformed, p 12.
40 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 209.
41 Choay; The Modern City: Planning in the 19th Century; p 18.
42 Saalman; Haussmann: Paris Transformed, p 20.
43 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 35.
44 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 30.
45 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 27-35.
46 Saalman; Haussmann: Paris Transformed, p 20.
47 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 27-35.
48 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 71-79.
49 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 87.
50 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 208.
51 Saalman; Haussmann: Paris Transformed, p 20.
52 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 37-47.
53 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 16.
54 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 57-70.
55 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 79-81.
56 Leygonie, Robert; Dechets; p 86.
57 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 210-211.
58 Evenson; Paris: A Century of Change; p 209.
59 Reid; Paris Sewers and Sewermen; p 82.